On the northwest region of India and forming a natural border with Pakistan, lays the Thar Desert, also known as The Great Indian Desert. It is spread over four states in India and two states in Pakistan. Thar covers an area of about 200,000 km2 (77,220 mi2).
Unlike other deserts which have a population of approximately 7 people per km2, Thar has 83 people per km2, making it the most densely populated desert of all.
The climate is typical of a tropical desert. Hottest temperatures are between April and June, rising to 41°C (~106°F). The coolest months are December to February, when the average maximum and minimum temperatures range between 28°C and 9°C (~82°F and 48°F) . Rainfall varies from year to year, but monsoon season is between June and September.
Because of its unique ecosystem, the vegetation and animal life here is very rich compared to other deserts. Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in large numbers here such as the blackbuck, chinkara and Indian wild ass, all of which have adapted to life with very little water. Eleven national parks within the desert protect its delicate ecosystem and endangered fauna.
Three cities have grown out of the desert – Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner, and activities will often start or end here. If you are the adventurous type, an excellent way to see this beautiful area is by safari. There are two types of safari available, by camel or by Jeep. Many of these depart from Jaisalmer.They offer a great way to explore the fragile yet beautiful dunes and unchanged lifestyles of the villages that lie in the desert and will usually include staying in tented camps in the solitude of the desert. Hot air ballooning and gliding are other popular ways to view the sheer size of the desert from above.